Johnson, Kurt. An Introduction to Effective Survey Design and Administration.
Pennsylvania State University Research Center. 25. March. 2016.
Dr. Kurt Johnson of The Pennsylvania State University Research Center found that using qualitative survey questions provided a context for the respondent question by including the topic, definitions, timeframe, and the task required. Johnson found that this gives the respondents the best chance of answering with validity and reliability. He also found that questions that have already been developed, tested, and effectively used increase the outcome of validity and reliability. Johnson concludes that there are five psychological steps that each respondent goes through in order to answer each survey question: encoding and storage, comprehension of question, retrieval of information, judgment and estimation, and reporting an answer. He believes each question should be asked with the audience’s comprehension and ability to answer in mind.